Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Chronic Kidney Disease: Pathophysiology and Management

Elmukhtar Habas, Mohsen Eledrisi, Fahmi Khan, Abdel-Naser Y Elzouki
2021 Cureus  
Serum calcium concentration is the main determinant of parathyroid hormone (PTH) release. Defect in the activation of vitamin D in the kidneys due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, resulting in a compensatory increase in parathyroid gland cellularity and parathyroid hormone production and causing secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP). Correction and maintenance of normal serum calcium and phosphate are essential to preventing SHP, hungry bone disease,
more » ... diovascular events, and anemia development. Understanding the pathophysiology of PTH and possible therapeutic agents can reduce the development and associated complications of SHP in patients with CKD. Medical interventions to control serum calcium, phosphate, and PTH such as vitamin D analogs, calcium receptor blockers, and parathyroidectomy are needed in some CKD patients. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of SHP in CKD patients.
doi:10.7759/cureus.16388 pmid:34408941 pmcid:PMC8362860 fatcat:rb5r4ww5ijfvrjmgyoufyufcgq