Mechanically active integrins direct cytotoxic secretion at the immune synapse [article]

Mitchell S. Wang, Yuesong Hu, Elisa E. Sanchez, Xihe Xie, Nathan H. Roy, Miguel de Jesus, Weiyang Jin, Joanne H. Lee, Yeonsun Hong, Minsoo Kim, Lance C. Kam, Khalid Salaita (+1 others)
2021 bioRxiv   pre-print
AbstractThe secretory output of cell-cell interfaces must be tightly controlled in space and time to ensure functional efficacy. This is particularly true for the cytotoxic immune synapse (IS), the stereotyped junction formed between a cytotoxic lymphocyte and the infected or transformed target cell it aims to destroy1. Cytotoxic lymphocytes kill their targets by channeling a mixture of granzyme proteases and the pore forming protein perforin directly into the IS2, 3. The synaptic secretion of
more » ... hese toxic molecules constrains their deleterious effects to the target cell alone, thereby protecting innocent bystander cells in the surrounding tissue from collateral damage. Despite the importance of this process for immune specificity, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that establish secretory sites within the IS remain poorly understood. Here, we identified an essential role for integrin mechanotransduction in cytotoxic secretion using a combination of single cell biophysical measurements, ligand micropatterning, and functional assays. Upon ligand-binding, the αLβ2 integrin LFA-1 functioned as a spatial cue, attracting lytic granules containing perforin and granzyme and inducing their fusion at closely adjacent sites within the synaptic membrane. LFA-1 molecules were subjected to pulling forces within these secretory domains, and genetic or pharmacological suppression of these forces abrogated cytotoxicity. We conclude that lymphocytes employ an integrin-dependent mechanical checkpoint to enhance both the potency and the security of their cytotoxic output.
doi:10.1101/2021.10.02.462778 fatcat:jxkc5sk4jng6pgqkt2pcuantn4