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The vascular endothelium plays a crucial role in the regulation of vascular homeostasis by controlling vascular tone, coagulation, and inflammatory responses. These actions are exerted by endothelial factors including nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). The greater incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men and postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women implies a vasoprotective phenotype of females, which may be influenced by sexdoi:10.1677/joe-08-0070 pmid:18492811 fatcat:5gfmfzlchjcc3ogdma74fin2ce