A step forwards in immunomodulation and immunetolerance knowledge. HLA-G expression in co-cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stem cells after in vitro NGAL stimulation
NGAL (Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin ) is a protein of lipocalin superfamily. Recent literature focused on its biomarkers function in several pathological condition (acute and chronic kidney damage, autoimmune disease, malignancy). NGAL biological role is not well elucidated. Several are the demonstration of its bacteriostatic role. Recent papers have indeed highlight NGAL role in NFkB modulation. The aim of this study is to understand whether NGAL may exert a role in the activation
... (modulation) of T cell response through the regulation of HLA-G complex, a mediator of tolerance. From 8 healthy donors we obtained peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and we isolated by centrifugation on a Ficoll gradient. Cells were then treated with four concentrations of NGAL (40-320 ng/ml) with or without iron. We performed flow cytometry analysis and ELISA test. NGAL increased the HLA-G expression on CD4+ T cells, with an increasing corresponding to the dose. Iron effect is not of unique interpretation. NGAL adiction affects regulatory T cells increasing in vitro expansion of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ cells. Neutralizing antibody against NGAL decreased HLA-G expression and reduced significantly CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ cells percentage. In conclusion, we provided in vitro evidence of NGAL involvement in cellular immunity. The potential role of NGAL as an immunomodulatory molecule has been evaluated: it has been shown that NGAL plays a pivotal role in the induction of immune tolerance up regulating HLA-G and T regulatory cells expression in healthy donors. As potential future scenario we highlight the in vivo role of NGAL in immunology and immunomodulation, and its possible relationship with immunosuppressive therapy efficacy, tolerance induction in transplant patients, and/or in other immunological disorders.