The comparison of water intake patterns and hydration biomarkers among young adults with different hydration statuses in Hebei, China

Jianfen Zhang, Na Zhang, Shufang Liu, Songming Du, Hairong He, Guansheng Ma
2021 Nutrition & Metabolism  
Background Water is essential for maintaining the functions of human body properly. Studies have shown that the amounts and contributions of fluids were associated with health and hydration status. The objectives of the study was that to explore the differences of water intake pattern and hydration biomarkers among young males and females in different hydration statuses. Methods A cross-sectional study was implemented among 159 young adults aged 18–23 years in Hebei, China. The total drinking
more » ... he total drinking fluids and water from food were obtained by 7-day 24-h fluid intake questionnaire and duplicate portion method, respectively. The osmolality and electrolyte concentrations of the 24 h urine and plasma were tested. Differences in optimal hydration (OH), middle hydration (MH) and hypohydration (HH) groups, divided by the osmolality of 24 h urine, were compared. Results Totally, 156 participants (80 males and 76 females) completed the study. OH group had highest proportions of participants met the recommendations of total water intake (TWI) and total drinking fluids of China (34.5%, 36.2%), while HH group had lowest (7.7%, 0.0%). OH group had higher amounts of TWI, total drinking fluids, water and lower amounts of sugar-sweetened-beverages (SSBs) (P < 0.05). The percentage of total drinking fluids in TWI decreased from 54.1% in OH group to 42.6% in HH group (P < 0.05). OH group had higher and lower contributions of water and SSBs to total drinking fluids (P < 0.05); produced 551–950 mL more, excreted significantly less quantity of solutes of urine (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in plasma osmolality among the three groups (P > 0.05). Among both males and females, the amounts of TWI and water were higher in OH group than others (P < 0.05). Males had 4.3% lower, 5.4% and 1.1% higher contributions of milk and milk products, SSBs and alcohol to total drinking fluids than females (P < 0.05); males had higher volume of urine than females only in MH group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences of plasma osmolality between males and females in the same group (P > 0.05). Conclusions Young adults with optimal hydration status had better water intake pattern and less concentrated urine. Females maybe have better water intake pattern than males. Trial registration Chinese clinical trial registry. Name of the registry: Relationship of drinking water and urination. Trial registration number: ChiCTR-ROC-17010320. Date of registration: 01/04/2017. URL of trial registry record:
doi:10.1186/s12986-020-00531-2 pmid:33407667 fatcat:r6qpxzevtfbcnaskdsf3eepbtq