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A pragmatic framework for detecting (identifying the on-off state of) the external force applied to a construction manipulator (front load) by using a hydraulic sensor is proposed. Such a load detecting system requires high accuracy and robustness considering the uncertainty in pressure-based force measurement. The proposed framework first identifies the dominant error force component, including self-weight and driving force, using theoretical and experimental estimation and binarizes thedoi:10.9746/jcmsi.5.366 fatcat:ufbdnden3zbgllukmwbeaw7kcm