Conservedin VivoPhosphorylation of Calnexin at Casein Kinase II Sites as Well as a Protein Kinase C/Proline-directed Kinase Site
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Calnexin is a lectin-like chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that couples temporally and spatially N-linked oligosaccharide modifications with the productive folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins. Calnexin was originally identified as a major type I integral membrane protein substrate of kinase(s) associated with the ER. Casein kinase II (CK2) was subsequently identified as an ER-associated kinase responsible for the in vitro phosphorylation of calnexin in microsomes (Ou, W-J.,
... somes (Ou, W-J., Thomas, D. Y., Bell, A. W., and Bergeron, J. J. M. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 23789 -23796). We now report on the in vivo sites of calnexin phosphorylation. After 32 PO 4 labeling of HepG2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, immunoprecipitated calnexin was phosphorylated exclusively on serine residues. Using nonradiolabeled cells, we subjected calnexin immunoprecipitates to in gel tryptic digestion followed by nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry employing selective scans specific for detection of phosphorylated fragments. Mass analyses identified three phosphorylated sites in calnexin from either HepG2 or Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The three sites were localized to the more carboxylterminal half of the cytosolic domain: S 534 DAE (CK2 motif), S 544 QEE (CK2 motif), and S 563 PR. We conclude that CK2 is a kinase that phosphorylates calnexin in vivo as well as in microsomes in vitro. Another yet to be identified kinase (protein kinase C and/or proline-directed kinase) is directed toward the most COOH-terminal serine residue. Elucidation of the signaling cascade responsible for calnexin phosphorylation at these sites in vivo may define a novel regulatory function for calnexin in cargo folding and transport to the ER exit sites.