Interaction between laser beam, process effects, and structural properties during welding using models based on the finite element analysis
Journal of laser applications
is an open access repository that collects the work of Arts et Métiers ParisTech researchers and makes it freely available over the web where possible. This is an author-deposited version published in: https://sam.ensam.eu Handle ID Interaction between laser beam, process effects, and structural properties during welding using models based on the finite element analysis Abstract: Hot-dipping galvanizing process is a widely used and efficient way to protect steel from corrosion. We propose to
... n. We propose to master the microstructure of zinc grains by investigating the relevant process parameters. In order to improve the texture of this coating, we model grain nucleation and growth processes and simulate the zinc solid phase development. A coupling scheme model has been applied with this aim. This model improves a previous two-dimensional model of the solidification process. It couples a cellular automaton (CA) approach and a finite element (FE) method. CA grid and FE mesh are superimposed on the same domain. The grain development is simulated at the micro-scale based on the CA grid. A nucleation law is defined using a Gaussian probability and a random set of nucleating cells. A crystallographic orientation is defined for each one with a choice of Euler's angle (ψ,θ,φ). A small growing shape is then associated to each cell in the mushy domain and a dendrite tip kinetics is defined using the model of Kurz  . The six directions of basal plane and the two perpendicular directions develop in each mushy cell. During each time step, cell temperature and solid fraction are then determined at micro-scale using the enthalpy conservation relation and variations are reassigned at macro-scale. This coupling scheme model enables to simulate the three-dimensional growing kinetics of the zinc grain in a two-dimensional approach. Grain structure evolutions for various cooling times have been simulated. Final grain structure has been compared to EBSD measurements. We show that the preferentially growth of dendrite arms in the basal plane of zinc grains is correctly predicted. The described coupling scheme model could be applied for simulated other product or manufacturing processes. It constitutes an approach gathering both micro and macro scale models.