Explainable artificial intelligence for predicting remission in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biologics
Background: We developed a model to predict remissions in patients treated with biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and to identify important clinical features associated with remission using explainable artificial intelligence (XAI).Methods: We gathered the follow-up data of 1204 patients treated with bDMARDs (etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab, infliximab, abatacept, and tocilizumab) from the Korean College of Rheumatology Biologics and Targeted Therapy Registry.
... was predicted at one-year follow-up using baseline clinical data obtained at the time of enrollment. Machine learning methods (e.g., lasso, ridge, support vector machine, random forest, and XGBoost) were used for the predictions. The Shapley additive explanation (SHAP) value was used for interpretability of the predictions.Results: The ranges for accuracy and area under the receiver operating characteristic of the newly developed machine learning model for predicting remission were 52.8%–72.9% and 0.511–0.694, respectively. The Shapley plot in XAI showed that the impacts of the variables on predicting remission differed for each bDMARD. The most important features were age for adalimumab, rheumatoid factor for etanercept, erythrocyte sedimentation rate for infliximab and golimumab, disease duration for abatacept, and C-reactive protein for tocilizumab, with mean SHAP values of -0.250, -0.234, -0.514, -0.227, -0.804, and 0.135, respectively.Conclusions: Our proposed machine learning model successfully identified clinical features that were predictive of remission in each of the bDMARDs. This approach may be useful for improving treatment outcomes by identifying clinical information related to remissions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.