3D CT stereoscopic imaging: an improved anatomical understanding of the anterior ethmoid sinus and frontal sinus drainage pathway
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this presentation is to display a series of new anatomical concepts and terms regarding the frontal si- nus, its drainage pathway and cells vs. spaces of the anterior ethmoid, based on Three-Dimensional Computer X-ray Tomography Stereoscopic Imaging (3DCTSI) and contrast these concepts to those reported in the current literature. METHODS: Given the new anatomic observations provided by 3DCTSI, and the widespread anatomic variations a small sample was initially
... d to describe our observations. Six exemplary cases according to the "Classification of Fronto-Ethmoidal cells" by Kuhn, Bent et al., Lee et al., expanded by Wormald et al., and adopted by Ramakrishnan et al., Huang et al., and Void et al. (1-7) were chosen to illustrate our detailed anatomic observations. Additional observations and data of prevalence identified in a larger series will follow. RESULTS and CONCLUSION: Conceptually, the anterior ethmoid "cells" are in essence "spaces" with openings that communicate with the middle meatus and/or the ethmoidal infundibulum. The frontal sinus and frontal recess are a united and continuous three-dimensional, irregularly shaped space, the Frontal Sinus/Recess Space (FSRS). The uncinate process has two segments: the Ethmoidal Uncinate Process (EUP), which encompasses the Infundibular Space of the EUP (IS-EUP), currently known as the Agger Nasi cell; and the Turbinal Uncinate Process (TUP), which borders the Turbinal Infundibulum (TI) medially. The superior attach- ment of the EUP will be detailed in each of the six cases (Table 2). The middle meatus and infundibular passages are the drainage pathways from the frontal sinus and maxillary sinus to the nasal cavity.