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Manganese oxides with layer and tunnel structures occur widely in the natural environment and inspire technological applications. In addition to having variable compositions, these structures often are found as small particles (nanophases). This study explores, using experimental thermochemistry, the role of composition, oxidation state, structure, and surface energy in the thermodynamic stability of synthetic birnessites and cryptomelane. These quantitative thermodynamic findings help explaindoi:10.1073/pnas.ss1147 pmid:28196926 fatcat:icbgicbpibfuvprh546yhqejke