Diallel Analysis of Polyphenols and Phytates Content in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)
Important biological activities have been described for anti-nutritional compounds from legumes. The principal aim of this work was to evaluate the levels of polyphenols, tannins and phytic acid of cowpea seeds and to study their genetic control by using diallel analysis. Fifteen homozygous genotypes and 21 F1 hybrids derived from a 7x7 half-diallel cross mating were sown in Maroua (Northern Cameroon) using a randomized complete block design. Flour samples produced from decorticated seeds were
... sed for biochemical analysis. Significant difference (p<0.001) was observed among genotypes for the studied traits. Total phenols content varied from 27.02 to 323.02 mg GAE/100g, tannins ranged from 3.77 to 277.98 mg/100g and phytic acid concentration varied from 60.90 to 1497.37 mg/100g. Diallel analysis revealed the presence of both additive and non-additive gene effects for the genetic control of these traits. The dominance was more important than additive variance for all characters. The model of superdominance was most widespread suggesting the requirement of selection in later generation for efficient improvement of these traits. Broad and narrow sense heritability estimates varied from 0.90 to 0.98 and 0.12 to 0.27 respectively. Parents and F1 progenies differed significantly for their general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining abilities (SCA) respectively. Globally, dominant genes decreased the rate of these phytochemicals. These results could help cowpea breeders to improve the nutritional value of the seeds through adequate selection.