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Poverty is a widespread problem that particularly afflicts developing countries. A number of studies, such as Naseem (1973, 1977); Allaudin (1975); Mujahid (1978); Irfan and Amjad (1984); Cheema (1985); Malik (1988); Ercelawn (1990); Ahmad and Ludlow (1989); Havinga et al. (1990, 1990a); Malik (1992, 1994); Zaidi and de Vos (1993); Malik and Shirazi (1994); and Gazdar et al. (1994), have analysed the phenomena of poverty in Pakistan. Some of these studies are based on arbitrarily chosendoi:10.30541/v34i4iipp.857-864 fatcat:dowbwzoaozdkfpswk3fzbgdkgy