Echocardiographic Classification of Perimembranous Ventricular Septal Defect Guides Selection of the Occluder Design for Their Transcatheter Device Closure
Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Perimembranous ventricular septal defects (VSDs) has proximate relation to the aortic and tricuspid valves as well as the conduction tissues. Transcatheter closure utilizes various off-label device designs. Perimembranous VSD without aortic margin were classified as group A, with thick aortic margin as group B, with membranous septal aneurysm as group C and defects restricted by tricuspid valve attachments as group D. The proposed ideal design was asymmetric device in group A; duct occluder I
... ; duct occluder I (ADOI) and muscular ventricular septal occluder (MVSO) in group B; thin profile duct occluder II (ADOII) in group C and ADOI in group D. Device was 0-2 mm larger than the defect. Eighty patients with VSD measuring 6.83 ± 2.87mm underwent successful closure. Device was retrieved before release in one group A and one group C patient due to aortic regurgitation. Asymmetric device was used in 16 group A defects. Among group B defects, ADOI was used in 5, ADOII in 5, MVSO in one and asymmetric device in 3. Group C defects were closed with ADOI in 7, ADOII in 10 and asymmetric device in 3. Three patients with multiple exits had 2 ADOII devices. Group D defects were closed using ADOI in 20 and ADOII in 10 patients. There was no late aortic regurgitation or heart block on a follow-up exceeding 7 years. This echocardiographic classification helps device selection in every single patient. While asymmetric device is uniquely suited for group A defects, different designs are appropriate in the other groups.