Differences in Risk Factors for Violent, Nonviolent, and Sexual Offending
Journal of Forensic Psychology Research and Practice
Whether risk factors for recidivism are equally predictive in different offender groups and across recidivism types is a question of high clinical importance. Therefore, this study aimed to examine (a) differences in impact of general delinquency risk factors for three different recidivism types, and (b) differences in the presence of general delinquency risk factors between five different offender groups. The studied sample comprised 8,665 Dutch adult offenders, in which risk factors for
... k factors for recidivism were assessed with the Recidivism Risk Assessment Scales (RISc). Results showed that risk factors were generally stronger related to nonviolent than to violent recidivism, and only weakly or not at all related to sexual recidivism. The total prevalence of risk factors was highest in generalists (non-specialized offenders), followed by nonviolent, violent, sexual, and one-time offenders. In violent offenders, risk factors in the domains relationship with the partner/family, emotional well-being, antisocial personality patterns, and antisocial attitudes/cognitions were more prevalent than in nonviolent offenders, whereas in nonviolent offenders, risk factors in the domains education/work, financial management/ income, antisocial friends/acquaintances, and drug abuse were more prevalent. In conclusion, risk factors differ in prevalence and impact across offender groups and recidivism types. Therefore, different treatment approaches are needed for successfully reducing different recidivism types across offender groups.