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We present herein a new differential space-time-frequency (DSTF) modulation scheme for systems that are equipped with an arbitrary number of transmit antennas and operate in frequency-selective channels. The proposed DSTF modulator consists of a concatenating spectral encoder and differential encoder that offer full spatio-spectral diversity and significant coding gain. A unitary structure is imposed on the differential encoder to admit linear, decoupled maximum likelihood (ML) detection indoi:10.1109/tsp.2005.847853 fatcat:buvfuk7zfjf2tbiixr2gcxelty