On İki İmam Dönemi Bazı İmamet Prensipleri

Aytekin ŞENZEYBEK
2019 Marife Dini Araştırmalar Dergisi  
Some Imamate Principles in The Twelve Imams Period Shiism, emerged when the debate on imams during the Rashid Caliphs took to the theological dimension. The theological principles put forth by the Shiite sects in the matter of Imamate constituted the basis for their other religious interpretations. However, the information given in the classical sources of Shia shows that there has been a constant change in the Imamate doctrines of the Shiite sects that emerged during the twelve imams. The
more » ... s and consequences of these changes have been analyzed in our research. Summary Shī'ism is a sect that is built upon the doctrine of imāmah, i.e. the supreme leadership of the universal Muslim community. Beginning with the taking of a pro-'Alī position in the conflicts that took place over the caliphate in the term of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, this process took on a creedal hue over time, organizing itself as a sect under the title "Shī'ah". Therefore, the Shī'ite interpretations of religion took shape on the basis of the doctrine of imāmah. The characterization "Shī'ism" is a generic term that involves many sects. Of these, such ones as Kaysāniyyāh, Zaydiyyah, Ismā'īliyyah, and Imāmiyyah regard the imams just as political and religious leaders whereas such extremist Shī'ite sects, called Ghulāt al-Shī'ah (lit. the Extremists of Shī'ites) as Sabaiyyah, Mughīriyyah, Khaṭṭābiyyah, and Nuṣayriyyah raise the imams to the rank of the locus of God's manifestation on the earth or as theophany. This study limits itself to those Shī'ite sects which view the imamah as a political and religious leadership. This study primarily rests on the literature produced by the Shī'ite sects as well as the classical heresiographical works and the modern scholarship on the subject. We shall follow the methodology of the History of Islamic Denominations. In this regard, we shall first provide the information extant in the classical sources; afterwards, we, departing from the socio-political environment of the term, shall try to discover which one of the Shī'ite sects and what factors have engendered these principles first, what changes these principles underwent as they make their way into other sects as well as what the reasons are for these changes. The study deals with the subjects in chronological manner and from the general to the specific. The doctrine of imāmah consists of a number of principles. This doctrine is made of such principles as that the imams are appointed through the divinely designation (naṣṣ and ta'yīn), that they receive nonlegislative revelation from God when needed, that they are innocent, and that they disappear and return. Despite the fact that there are independent studies about the major principles of the theory of imāmah, those theories which constitute the subject of our study are treated by such studies either superficially and generally or are just mentioned in passing. These principles are subjected to a more detailed examination in this study. This study is intended to address six principles that arose in the Twelve Imam period, which of the first is that "The earth never remains devoid of an imam." According to this theory that is accepted universally by all Shī'ite sects, the earth from Adam down to doomsday never remains devoid of an imam, hidden or obvious; otherwise, it falls apart. One may view the attitude that conditions the continuity of life on the earth on the existence of the imam as an apologetic position taken vis-à-vis the criticisms that are leveled at the tendency to turn an essentially political issue like imāmah into the creedal and represent it as a tenet of religion. Intrinsic to this principle, the notion of the hidden imam was set forth first by the Kaysāniyyah as a result of the extreme love felt for Muḥammad al-Mahdī after his decease. Though the Imāmiyyah did not adopt this notion in the beginning, it seems to have taken up this Daysānite theory later on because the second imam Muḥammad al-Mahdī had no children. The principle of the genealogical imamah seems to be a major factor for the division of the Shī'ah into different sects. The reason for the appearance of this principle is the emergence of claims for imāmah by multiple candidates due to the increase in the number of the descendants of the Ahl-i Bayt, i.e. the Household of the Prophet. For example, the Hassanites claimed that only the descendants of Hassan could become imam; the Husseinites claimed that only the descendants of Hussein could become imam; the Zaydites claimed that the descendants of both Hassan and Hussein could become imam; Kaysāniyyah claimed that exclusively those coming from the lineage of Muḥammad bin al-Ḥanafiyyah could become imam. Apart from these, there were independent Shī'ite leaders such as the 'Abbāsids, the Janāḥids as well as other Shī'ite leaders advocating extreme ideas, who themselves were not members of the Household, but claimed for imāmah by affiliating themselves to one of the descended imams above. Every sect argued for the genealogical imāmah with a view to authenticating its own imam to the exclusion of others. The following limitations are also set in order to designate the imam: "The imāmah descends from father to son exclusively, and not to brother or paternal uncle or any other relatives"; "The imāmah belongs to the eldest son of the imam." The fact that there were some heir-apparents or successors (waṣī) who were still minor when their fathers passed away caused various debates which led some groups to affiliate themselves to the imams of other groups with the claim that minor successors cannot become imam. Conversely, the mainstream
doi:10.33420/marife.623105 fatcat:rvo3ls3tgrailiqahn6r3rriqy