Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of WHOQOL-HIV Bref Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Pakistan
Background Reliable Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) assessment will be useful in identifying health issues and in identifying health care actions. Due to the lack of a psychometrically valid tool in Urdu, we aim to translate and examine the psychometric and cross-cultural adaptation of WHOQOL HIV Bref among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Pakistan. Methods The standard forward-backwards translation technique was used to convert English version of the WHOQOL HIV Bref into Urdu.
... Bref into Urdu. After cognitive debriefing, final Urdu version of instrument was developed. Based on the principle of at least 5 subjects for each item, a sample of 182 patients was used using a universal random sampling technique from the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. The Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were estimated to assess internal validity and reliability of the translated version. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to determine the factor structure and independent associations between the instrument domains and CD-4 T-cell count were assessed using multivariable linear regressionResults High Cronbach alpha 0.93 was found for all WHOQOL HIV Bref facets. The test-retest reliability demonstrated a statistically significant ICC ranged from 0.88 – 0.98 (p < 0.001). In known group validity, lower CD-4 lymphocytes count was significantly related to poor scores for all six domains (p < 0.001). Similarly, symptomatic subjects had significantly lower scores compared to asymptomatic subjects on the physical, psychological, social relationship and independence domains (p < 0.05). Statistically significant positive correlation of all six domains of instrument with CD4 cells count (p < 0.001), exhibiting patients with higher CD-4 cells will have higher mean scores of all domains. Factor analysis revealed 5 domains, including physical health, psychological health, social relationship, environmental, and spiritual health. Multivariable linear regression analysis reported; only physical, psychological health and environment health domains were found significantly associated with higher CD-4 lymphocytes count (Beta = 0.121, p < 0.001, Beta = 0.103, p = 0.002, and Beta = 0.032, p = 0.032).Conclusion Findings suggested that the Urdu version of WHOQOL HIV Bref is a psychometrically valid and culturally well-adapted HRQoL measurement tool for PLWHA in Pakistan.