Electric Vehicle – A Review

Jayanthi N
2021 Revista GEINTEC  
In this paper we are going to see about the history and evolution of electric vehicle in the environment. This electric vehicle plays a vital and important role in the environment which reduce the common pollution in the world, but it also has some disadvantages which is impact to the environment. However, technology is enriching the features of that which are also adoptable to the devices and we can modify to use. What are all the materials and why we are all using these materials to make?
more » ... e are all we are going to see in this paper. The principle and mechanisms used also discussed in this paper. The electric vehicles types are also discussed and the features, efficiency of E vehicles, cost efficiency, stability, range, environmental aspects, battery management, and improvement also reviewed in this paper. electrical three-wheeled cars, especially U.S.A had made a first invention of first six-person wagon which was the first electrical vehicle. It runs with the speed of 14 miles per hour. The electrical vehicle dominates the steam engine and petrol engine because of its reduction in noise pollution and smell released from the burning of vehicles makes an uncomfortable condition has been reduced. In 1900s were one-third of the vehicles are electrical vehicles [2] but in 1920s in order to increase the efficiency of the vehicles the petrol engine replaced the e-vehicles because the e-vehicle travels with the speed of 20-30miles per hour which is like a speed of a bicycle pedaling. The electrical vehicles travel with a distance of 50-80 km and they should be charged for an every single hour [1]. This was the reason why petrol engine replaced causes and trying to succeed the go green love electrical vehicles. Suddenly there is an early rise and fall of the electrical vehicles. Americans were prosperous and also, they were turned to the newly invented motor vehicle which was available in the various versions like steam, gasoline to get around. At first, they tried the steam version and the true energy source having proved reliable for the powering factories and trains. But these stream vehicles require a long startup times and which in the cold condition takes up to 45 times [2] and also, they need to be refilled up to the limit with water. And after there is a new beginning of the electrical cars and the newly invented e-vehicle named Prius became the World's first mass-produced hybrid electric vehicle and which was the first turning point that so many had suggested and it was the establishment of the Toyota Prius [1]. 3747 Hybrid Electric Vehicle This is the second type of electric vehicle which has both mechanical and electric parts to run the system [7]. The mechanical part like internal combustion engine. the electrical part like electrical engine. When the power demand is low the electric propulsion is used. The advantage of this vehicle is low fuel consumption, urban areas are slow speed condition is suitable for this vehicle, the outside of the urban areas we use the internal combustion engine is activated and electric motor is stopped. The batteries are recharged by alternating current. This internal combustion engine is a backup for electric battery when it is dissipated. The breaking system of this vehicle is more advantage. It will improve the mileage performance. The upgradation of this vehicle is to recharge energy by means of plugging. Torque is improved; reduce pollution emission, high efficiency of the electric machine. Disadvantages of this vehicle are cost, electronic complexity, mass of the vehicle, low system reliability [7]. Internal Structure of Hybrid E-Vehicle PHEV is like the hybrid electrical vehicle because both the internal combustion engine and electric motors are used [8]. But the major difference between these two is it requires larger battery capacity. In PHEV the electric mode is activated first, after the loss of energies in the batteries then the electric mode is turned off and the ICE is used as backup sources. The charging mode of the PHEV is directly obtained from the grid, it can be recharged through external electricity source. These recharged batteries are used to drive the wheels. PHEV is coming under the both BEV and HEV. The advantages of PHEV is zero emission of pollution when the batteries are used, fuel efficient in traffic areas, optimized performance, handle easy to drive, cost-efficient, battery capacities is large enough to drive. The disadvantages of PHEV are fuel economy is not good at on journey, maintenance is complex, consideration of battery life, transmission energy loss, added weight of components, relatively expensive, resale value is not to determine, and it's still using the fuel engine [8]. 3749 Range Extended Electric Vehicle The major component of REEV is electric motor and majorly the combustion engine is used [9]. The electric motor is driven by the help of high capacity batteries. These batteries are often charged by the help of combustion engine. it is majorly run with the help of electrical motor when the batteries are discharged to run the electric motor, the combustion engine is turned on to run the generator for supplying the energy to the electric motor otherwise to recharge the battery for an average distance REEV can run with fully electrical mode and then efficient like BEV [8].The advantages of REEV is low cost higher power density, fast startup, range of the electric source is increase, quality infrastructure simple design, good scalability. The disadvantages of REEV are low efficiency, noise, vibrations, high emissions, no packaging variability, additional weight of the vehicle. Audi portfolio Internal Structure of Range Extened E-vehicle Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle In this vehicle the name itself they denoted that the fuel cell is used so the fuel cell produces electricity to run this vehicle [10]. In this vehicle the hydrogen is used to carry out the reaction so they are often known as hydrogen fuel vehicle. In this the hydrogen is taken as high pressure tank and oxygen is also taken for the production of power generating process. The fuel cell produces electricity and this electricity generated to run the motor which turns the wheel. The super capacitors or batteries are used to store the excess amount of energy. The by-product of FCV is water which can be ejected from the car by the tail pipes [10]. The advantage of the FCV are they produce their own power which does not emit carbon, refilling of this vehicle is same as that of conventional vehicle, it reduces greenhouse gas emission, reduce the oil ripens, less air pollutants, vehicle costs, getting hydrogen to customers, public education, no need of oils, silent operation in the vehicle, easy maintenance and no need of petroleum [10]. The disadvantage of this vehicle is expensive, need hydrogen stations, low durability and reliability, highly inflammable, limited range etc [8]. In this vehicle the battery also attached for complete working of day and night to drive extended range [10]. In this vehicle the solar panel is attached to the roof of the vehicle to take energy directly from sun light [10]. The advantages of this vehicle are ability to use their enough power at any level of speed, harmless, acquires low maintenance, eco-friendly, zero emission, reduce maintenance, using renewable energy, reduces electric power compared to other vehicles, integrated body material to use comfortable, applied improved technology, no need of petroleum, this vehicles are barebones [9]. The disadvantages are costly, depended on weather, energy storage is expensive, cause's pollution during the manufacturing the vehicle, indirectly affecting environment by using the photo voltaic cells, spacing of the solar panel taking large, speed of this cars is low compared to other vehicles [9]. This is the component which supply the electrical energy to the motor to run the vehicle [3] if controller is brain, then battery is the heart of the e-vehicle without nothing is possible and the battery is the lead acid battery which is light in weight and are cheaper then lead acid battery.
doi:10.47059/revistageintec.v11i4.2403 fatcat:zemqmu2kdfawleayxgvjxcpupa