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The current status of measurements of the nucleon structure functions and their understanding is reviewed. The fixed target experiments E665, CCFR and NMC and the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS are discussed in some detail. The extraction of parton momentum distribution functions from global fits is described, with particular attention paid to much improved information on the gluon momentum distribution. The status of alpha_s measurements from deep inelastic data is reviewed. Models anddoi:10.1142/s0217751x98001670 fatcat:bkkscomso5h5daryrlrdvm35ce