Activation of Jordanian Bentonite by Hydrochloric Acid and Its Potential for Olive Mill Wastewater Enhanced Treatment

Khansaa Al-Essa
2018 Journal of Chemistry  
Jordanian bentonite was activated by hydrochloric acid at room temperature. FTIR, XRD, TGA, and BET surface area analyses of the samples were carried out to examine the structure of bentonite before and after acid activation. It is found that the octahedral cations were removed, which altered the chemical composition of the bentonite. Difference of surface area was noticed (66.2 to 287.8 m2 g−1), which was caused by structural changes in the bentonite. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness
more » ... f activated bentonite in OMWW treatment. Batch and column techniques were applied. Crude and treated OMWW samples were characterized; physiochemical parameters, total phenolic compounds, and heavy metal ions concentrations were measured. Several parameters that affected the adsorption capacity were studied: the pH value of the solution, temperature, and the adsorbent dose. It was found that the maximum removal of total phenolic compounds and heavy metal ions (Zn, Fe, and Mn) was at pH 6. Adsorption capacity of phenolic compounds was enhanced with an increase in the temperature of the solution and also with the adsorbent dose. The optimum adsorbent concentration needed for the maximum removal of total phenolic compounds is 1 g of activated bentonite/0.01 L of OMWW. The percentage removal exceeded 99% for Zn, Fe, and Mn ions, while it reached 65.2 and 61.5 for K+ and Na+ ions, respectively. Finally, the percentage removal of pollutants was increased by using activated bentonite. This study will provide valuable insight into the effect of activated bentonite towards the treatment and recyclability of OMWW, which is essential for the local olive mill industry.
doi:10.1155/2018/8385692 fatcat:ljavlw2njvakvhkpicg34rcmny