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Up until the Crusades, it was al-Rūm who were universally seen by Arab writers and Arab poets in particular as the Other par excellence. Nowhere is this more conspicuous than in the sub-genre of Al-Rumiyyat (poems about the Byzantines), namely as found in Al-Rumiyyat of Abu Firas al-Hamdani (d.968), and in the poetic responses of al-Qaffal (d. 946) and Ibn Hazm(d. 1064) to what was described by several medieval Muslim chronicles as Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-Malʿuna (The Armenian Cursed Ode). Byfatcat:zaleygjnlzhkhg2t3t34d7ssoy