6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea [chapter]

2008 Hidden Markov Models and Dynamical Systems  
Executive Summary  Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) includes symptoms of excessive daytime somnolence, snoring, and witnessed apneic events.  The average number of hypopneic and apneic events per hour of sleep are used to grade the severity of OSA using the apnea-hypopnea index.  The gold standard for diagnosing OSA is through full-night polysomnography in a laboratory with a titration to determine the optimal pressure setting.  Split-night diagnostic titration studies using auto-titration
more » ... ces are not the diagnostic study of choice.  Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices remain the mainstay of treatment. If CPAP is poorly tolerated, alternatives include Bi-level PAP, oral devices, and surgical options.  Emerging therapies, such as hypoglossal nerve stimulation, are being developed. These alternatives to CPAP are being studied in efforts to improve patient adherence and outcomes associated with OSA.
doi:10.1137/1.9780898717747.ch6 fatcat:ast66dxftbdmvo3nmri6wbpgu4