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Aiming to effectively recognize train center plate bolt loss faults, this paper presents an improved fault detection method. A multi-scale local binary pattern operator containing the local texture information of different radii is designed to extract more efficient discrimination information. An improved teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm is established to optimize the classification results in the decision level. Two new phases including the worst recombination phase and thedoi:10.3390/sym7041734 fatcat:62767ewm4zeyzp5on3h6k4fyma