Radiation Effects in Advanced and Emerging Nonvolatile Memories

Matthew J. Marinella
2021 IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science  
Despite hitting major roadblocks in 2-D scaling, NAND flash continues to scale in the vertical direction and dominate the commercial nonvolatile memory market. However, several emerging nonvolatile technologies are under development by major commercial foundries or are already in small volume production, motivated by storage-class memory and embedded application drivers. These include spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM), resistive random access memory (ReRAM), phase
more » ... nge random access memory (PCRAM), and conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM). Emerging memories have improved resilience to radiation effects compared to flash, which is based on storing charge, and hence may offer an expanded selection from which radiation-tolerant system designers can choose from in the future. This review discusses the material and device physics, fabrication, operational principles, and commercial status of scaled 2-D flash, 3-D flash, and emerging memory technologies. Radiation effects relevant to each of these memories are described, including the physics of and errors caused by total ionizing dose, displacement damage, and single-event effects, with an eye toward the future role of emerging technologies in radiation environments. Index Terms-Emerging memory, magnetic memory, nonvolatile memory (NVM), phase change memory, radiation effects, resistive memory.
doi:10.1109/tns.2021.3074139 fatcat:sosgjpsninerbkkaocswmutakm