The determinants, biomarkers, and consequences of microvascular injury in kidney transplant recipients
AJP - Renal Physiology
Independent of the initial cause of kidney disease, microvascular injury to the peritubular capillary network appears to play a central role in the development of interstitial fibrosis in both native and transplanted kidney disease. This association is explained by mechanisms such as the upregulation of profibrotic genes and epigenetic changes induced by hypoxia, capillary leakage, endothelial and pericyte transition to interstitial fibroblasts, as well as modifications in the secretome of
... e secretome of endothelial cells. Alloimmune injury due to antibody-mediated rejection and ischemia-reperfusion injury are the two main etiologies of microvascular damage in kidney transplant recipients. The presence of circulating donor-specific anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, histological findings, such as diffuse C4d staining in peritubular capillaries, and the extent and severity of peritubular capillaritis, are commonly used clinically to provide both diagnostic and prognostic information. Complement-dependent assays, circulating non-HLA antibodies, or evaluation of the microvasculature with novel imaging techniques are the subject of ongoing studies.