Sistem Perbenihan Formal dan Informal Tanaman Pangan Formal and Informal Seed System in the Food Crops Production

Eman Paturohman, Dan Sumarno, Pusat Penelitian, Dan Pengembangan, Tanaman Pangan, Jl Merdeka Bogor, Indonesia
2017 unpublished
The food crop seed system had evolved in accordance with the progress of the farming development. In subsistence farming, seed supply is an integral part of the farming itself, whereby farmers obtain seed from the crops harvested in the previous season. Commercial intensive farming utilizes good seed quality of improved variety provided by commercial seed companies. When the seed is product and directly used by farmers, it is called an informal seed system, while seed which is produced
more » ... s produced according to the standard operation, including seed certification, it is called a formal seed system. Food crops production in Indonesia accomodates the informal seed system, especially for the farming on suboptimum lands and for legumes and tuber crops. Informal seed system provides seeds of many local adapted varieties, which are able to form the agrobiodiversities on the farm lands. Conversely, the formal seed system has provided certified seeds of improved varieties and hybrids, which have contributed significantly to the increases of national food production. Informal and formal seed systems both can go along harmoniously in providing seed for Indonesian farmers, because each has certain targeted farmers. Governmental seed program, therefore, should facilitate both the informal and formal seed system. Informal seed system of food crops should be more appreciated rather than being discouraged, because it is complementary to the formal seed system. ABSTRAK Sistem perbenihan tanaman pangan berkembang sejalan dengan tingkat kemajuan usahatani. Pada usahatani susbsisten, perbenihan merupakan bagian integral di mana benih yang digunakan petani berasal dari hasil panen sendiri. Pertanian maju yang intensif menggunakan benih bermutu varietas unggul yang disediakan oleh perusahaan benih komersial. Sistem perbenihan oleh petani sendiri disebut sistem perbenihan informal. Sistem perbenihan yang mengikuti prosedur baku dan mengadopsi proses sertifikasi disebut sistem perbenihan formal. Usaha pertanian tanaman pangan di Indonesia tetap memberikan ruang beroperasinya sistem perbenihan informal, terutama bagi usahatani pada lahan suboptimal, tanaman pangan legum, dan umbi-umbian. Sistem perbenihan informal menyediakan banyak varietas lokal yang adaptif pada agroekologi spesifik, sehingga membentuk agrobiodiversitas lahan pertanian. Perbenihan formal menyediakan benih varietas unggul dan varietas hibrida yang telah berperan nyata dalam program peningkatan produksi pangan nasional. Sistem perbenihan informal dan formal dapat beroperasi berdampingan, karena masing-masing melayani kebutuhan benih petani yang berbeda tingkat kemajuannya. Pemerintah hendaknya memberikan pembinaan, bantuan, dan fasilitas tidak hanya kepada pelaku perbenihan formal, tetapi juga kepada pelaku perbenihan informal. Sistem perbenihan informal pada tanaman pangan bersifat komplementer terhadap sistem perbenihan formal. Kata kunci: Tanaman pangan, perbenihan, formal, informal, komplementer.
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