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SAE Technical Paper Series
In cold climates batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles need to be preheated to achieve desired performance and life cycle of the energy storage system and the vehicle. Several approaches are available: internal core heating; external electric heating of a module; internal electric heating in the module around each cell, internal fluid heating around each cell; and external fluid heating around each module. To identify the most energy efficient approach, we built and analyzed severaldoi:10.4271/2002-01-1975 fatcat:yfzemi64szfsxdabd6ke26f3gy