Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with a tumor thrombus extending from the inferior vena cava to the right atrium: a case report
Surgical Case Reports
Background Vascular invasion involving a tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava and/or right atrium is an unfavorable prognostic factor after intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma resection. We report an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma case with a tumor thrombus extending from the left hepatic vein via the inferior vena cava to the right atrium. Case presentation A 58-year-old man with epigastralgia was referred to our hospital after an emergent transcatheter arterial embolization was done
... n was done following the radiological diagnosis of a ruptured hepatic tumor. The serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate 19-9, duke pancreatic monoclonal antigen type 2, and cytokeratin-19 fragments were elevated; meanwhile those of alfa-fetoprotein and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin were within normal ranges. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed a heterogeneously enhanced tumor, 13 cm in diameter, in the left lobe of the liver, enlarged lymph nodes along the lesser curvature of the stomach, and a tumor thrombus extending from the left hepatic vein via the inferior vena cava to the right atrium. We performed a left hemihepatectomy and tumor thrombectomy under total hepatic vascular exclusion to reduce the risk of sudden death. After dissection of the liver parenchyma along the left side of the middle hepatic vein, except for the left hepatic vein, the inferior vena cava just below the right atrium could be clamped by pulling down the left lobe of the liver toward the caudal side. The thrombus could be removed by incising the inferior vena cava under total hepatic vascular exclusion. Microscopic examination showed a tubular adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for cytokeratin-7, cytokeratin-19, and epithelial membrane antigen, but negative for arginase-1, glypican-3, and hepatocyte. The patient was pathologically diagnosed with an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with a tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava. Adjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil was administered for 1 year. The patient remained in good health without cancer recurrence for over 4 years after the operation. Conclusion An aggressive surgical approach may be indicated for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with a tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava and/or right atrium to avoid the risk of impending death.