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We estimate the long-run effect of a uniform carbon tax on energy consumption by using a new and unique dataset in which effective tax rates of OECD countries are calculated in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The effective tax rates account for the widely discussed tax deductions for specific energy tax bases leading to a careful calculation of net tax rates faced by agents. We argue that taxation might be endogenous to energy consumption in the long run. In order to identify a causalfatcat:b6djjlgxure7hlypqf3ew3htam