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Cancer is a disease characterized by the accumulation of numerical chromosomal aberrations along with the development of genetic instability. The present study was an attempt to assess the numerical chromosomal changes in the Adenocarcinoma of the cervix with reference to chromosome 3 and 17 through the use of Fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Centromeric eneumeration probes (Alpha satellite DNA) were used to assess the Nullisomies, Monosomies, Trisomies and Polysomies of the said
... omies of the said chromosomes. FISH results of CEP 3 and CEP-17 in the present study showed the frequent gains of chromosome 3 over the chromosome 17. Statistical analyses were conducted by using ANOVA and Chi square tests. ANOVA results were found to be significant for both CEP 3 and CEP-17 in adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Chi square test (disease v/s control) was also used to study the significant difference between the patients and the controls and it was found to be significant for both chromosomes 3 and 17. Interphase cytogenetics by FISH has now gained broader use in the detection and diagnosis of both hematological as well as solid tumors. The present however is a very small attempt but the aim of the study is to test the usefulness of FISH as a complementary diagnostic tool for the detection of common numerical changes in malignant cells. Introduction Cervical cancer is one of the major health problems for women in India. Mortality due to cervical cancer is also an indicator of health inequities  as 86% of all deaths due to cervical cancer are in developing, low-and middle-income countries . Every year in India, 122,844 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 67,477 die from the disease. India has a population of 432.2 million women aged 15 years and older who are at risk of developing cancer. It is the second most common cancer in women aged 15-44 years. India also has the highest age standardized incidence of cervical cancer in South Asia at 22, compared to 19.2 in Bangladesh, 13 in Sri Lanka, and 2.8 in Iran. Therefore, it is vital to understand the epidemiology of cervical cancer in India . Cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies have shown that chromosomal instability involving gains and losses of whole chromosomes or chromosome regions is likely to occur in most human malignancies including breast, cervix, lung and ovary cancer, neoblastoma, leukemia and sarcomas. Solid tumors are commonly associated with an array of orchestrated genetic changes, and the identification of changes causally related to the carcinogenic process has been frustratingly slow, mainly as a consequence of the enormous volume of secondary abnormalities reflecting the phenomenon of genomic instability. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a cytogenetic technique developed in the early 1980s. FISH uses fluorescent DNA probes to target specific chromosomal locations within the nucleus, resulting in colored signals that can be detected using a fluorescent microscope. Compared to the conventional cytogenetic (CC) metaphase karyotype analysis, FISH does not require cell culturing, and can directly use fresh or paraffin-embedded interphase nuclei for a rapid evaluation. With the discovery of numerous disease-related genes in recent years, the applications of FISH broadened to include more genetic diseases, hematologic malignancies, and solid tumors. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful technique used in the detection of chromosomal abnormalities.