Disorders of sodium balance in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary lesions in traumatic brain injury
Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) still remains the leading cause of death in people of working age. In Ukraine, the frequency of TBI varies from 2.3 to 6 cases (average of 4–4.2) per 1,000 population annually depending on the regions. Patients with primary damage to the brain and hypothalamic-pituitary system are at risk of developing cerebral edema due to the water-electrolyte imbalance and, accordingly, osmolar imbalance between cellular and extracellular spaces. Water-electrolyte
... lance as a result of damage to the hypothalamic-pituitary system in traumatic brain injury is not described enough in the literature. The functioning of the central and peripheral links of the endocrine system depending on the location, nature and severity of injury is examined not enough. The question of diagnostic and prognostic values of various indicators of volume status in patients with trauma is also underinvestigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the types of disorders of sodium balance in patients with isolated TBI and hypothalamic-pituitary lesions; to clarify the influence of sodium imbalance type on mortality in patients with TBI and hypothalamic-pituitary lesions. Material and methods. We examined 74 patients (men/women = 60/14) with focal cerebral contusion and lesions of the hypothalamic region. Forty-seven of them were diagnosed with hypovolemia combined with hyponatremia. Hypernatremia with hypervolemia was found in 15 patients. Intracranial pressure monitoring was performed using a multifunction monitor (BSM-3562, Japan, 2018, Nihon Kohden Corporation) with a line for invasive pressure measurement. Continuous non-invasive measurement of organ tissue oxygenation (rSO2) was carried out using Somanetics Invos Oximeter Cerebral/Somatic monitor (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA, 2020). Plasma electrolytes were evaluated in all patients. Conclusions. Patients with TBI and hypothalamic-pituitary lesion have different types of water-sodium imbalance, which demand the differentiated approach to their treatment. Given the small number of observations, we do not dare to link the type of sodium imbalance with lethality in patients with brain trauma and hypothalamic-pituitary lesions. We consider this requires further researches.