Avaliação do potencial antiparasitário do extrato alcaloídico e de alcalóides esteroidais dos frutos de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil [thesis]

Mariza Abreu Miranda
AGRADECIMENTOS Agradeço primeiramente a Deus, por estar comigo em todos os momentos da realização deste trabalho, me protegendo e guiando para que fosse realizado. Ao Prof. Dr. Jairo Kenupp Bastos pela orientação e oportunidade. Aos professores do laboratório de farmacognosia, Dr. Fernando Batista da Costa e Dr a Niege Araçari Jacometti Cardoso Furtado, por sempre auxiliarem meu crescimento. A família de amigos do laboratório de Farmacognosia: Cris, Dani, Eli, Gobbo, João Paulo, July
more » ... lo, July (filhinha), Juzinha, Mauro, Ricardo, Rejane, Wanessa e Willian por toda troca de conhecimento e companheirismo e, de uma forma especial, a amiga Renata que muito me ensinou e contribuiu, incondicionalmente, para que este trabalho fosse realizado, caminhando sempre lado a lado. Aos técnicos do nosso laboratório, Valtinho e Mário. Ao Reinaldo e Ramon, do biotério, pela paciência e auxílio com meus animais. Ao Prof. Dr. Milton Groppo Júnior, pela identificação botânica da espécie trabalhada. Ao Prof. Dr. Noberto Peporine Lopes e Tomás pelos espectros de massas. Ao Prof. Dr. Sergio Albuquerque, pelo acompanhamento dos ensaios leishmanicidas. Aos técnicos e novos amigos que surgiram no decorrer da caminhada do laboratório de Parasitologia: Mariana"s", Kelly, Christian e Gustavo. A Prof. Dr a . Silmara Marques Allegrete e a aluna de mestrado Letícia Aparecida Duart Bastos pelos ensaios contra Strongyloides. Palavras-chave: Solanum lycocarpum, solamargina, solasonina, solasodina, leishmaniose, estrongiloidíase, esquistossomose. ii ABSTRACT MIRANDA, M. A. Evaluation of the antiparasitic potential of the alkaloidc extract and of the steroidal alkaloids from Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil fruits. 2010. 110f. Dissertation (Master). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto -University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, 2010. The Brazilian Solanaceae plant, Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil. is distributed in the Southeast and Middle West of the country. The fruit of this plant is popularly known as "fruta do lobo" (wolf-fruit). The intake of these fruits prevents renal parasitism (Dioctophyna renale) which affects wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). These fruits contain two major alkaloid heterosides (solamargine (SM) and solasonine (SS)) bearing both the same aglycone, solasodine (SD). Among the parasitic diseases, such as leishmaniasis, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis stand out in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in tropical and subtropical areas. It's extremely important to search for new drugs to treat these and other neglected diseases. The present work reports the obtainment of the alkaloidic extract (AE) of the S. lycocarpum fruit, the isolation of the major alkaloid heterosides and to obtain the aglycone. The obtained samples were evaluated for the in vitro leishmanicidal, strongyloicidal and schistosomicidal activities. Also, the schistosomicidal activity of the AE was evaluated in an animal model. The AE was obtained from dried and grounded fruits by using acid-base extraction. SM and SS were isolated either by preparative thin layer chromatography or by flash chromatography. SD was obtained by acid hydrolyses of the AE, and it was purified by silica gel column chromatography using gradient elution. The structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by analysis of NMR and mass spectrometry. The analysis of the obtained results for the biological evaluation showed that the AE displays leishmanicidal, strongyloicidal and schistosomicidal activities. The isolated compounds, SM, SS and their equimolar mix were actived against L. amazonensis. These compounds also were able to reduce the mobility, to separate the worm into male and female, to modify the tegumental and to cause the death of the adults worms besides reducing the development of eggs. The SD was inactive against L. amazonensis and S. mansoni adult worms. When AE was evaluated in vivo showed activity as schistosomicidal, decreasing the number of eggs and granulomas in the liver of the treated mice.
doi:10.11606/d.60.2010.tde-04112010-161118 fatcat:b6vqh4dwizcl5dqwng36ivkmdi