Arabidopsis thaliana induces multigenerational stress tolerance against biotic and abiotic stressors and memorization of host colonization in Bacillus subtilis [article]

Omri Gilhar, Tsviya Olender, Asaph Aharoni, Jonathan Friedman, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
2022 bioRxiv   pre-print
Bacillus subtilis is a beneficial bacterium that supports plant growth and protects it from bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. Here using a simplified system of B. subtilis, and Arabidopsis thaliana interactions, we found that history-dependent behavior is a potentially important manifestation of host colonization, worth classifying and quantifying. To study history-dependent adaptation to plant hosts, we develop a simple framework for measuring the physiological memory of B. subtilis
more » ... owing its interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that A. thaliana secretions reduce the lag time in pre-exposed bacteria compared with unexposed B. subtilis cells, even after their complete removal. Pre-exposed B. subtilis cells colonized plant roots more efficiently than unexposed bacteria, and were more resistant to biotic and abiotic stressors such as salicylic acid, and high salinity. Descendants of bacteria treated with plant secretions had an advantage in the competition against unexposed bacteria for root colonization. The effect of plant secretions was independent of their roles as nitrogen and carbon sources. Transcriptome analysis of both ancestors and descendants revealed that a specific set of plant-induced processes, among them c-di-AMP homeostasis, and the general stress response, maintain the signature of association with the plant in descendants of pre-exposed bacteria. Consistently, plant secretions compensated for the loss of c-di-AMP cyclases but required the general stress response and the master regulator Spo0A to exert their short and long-term effects.
doi:10.1101/2022.05.29.493878 fatcat:hd36nldawzcjrdswlvqdtogg3q