Enhancing therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic vaccinia virus armed with Beclin-1, an autophagic Gene in leukemia and myeloma
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Different strategies were taken to make virotherapy more effective at killing cancer cells. Among them, oncolytic virus which arms the therapeutic gene to enhance antitumor activity is a prevalent approach. In this study, a newly developed oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) that expresses Beclin-1 (OVV-BECN1) was tested for its in vitro and in vivo oncolytic activity in blood cancer. Results showed that the OVV exhibited higher infectivity for leukemia cells. OVV-BECN1 induced significant
... gnificant apoptosis-independent cell death either in wild-type leukemia and multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines or caspase-3 shRNA leukemia cell lines, and had a superior antitumor activity compared to the parent OVV. Autophagic cell death induced by OVV-BECN1 was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo experiments. Finally, upregulation of SIRT-1, a member of class III histone deacetylases, by OVV-BECN1 resulted in the deacetylation of LC3 and its distribution from the nucleus toward the cytoplasm, which might contribute to induction of autophagy. Overall, our data showed a favorable therapeutic effect of the oncolytic vaccinia virus on blood cancers through oncolytic and autophagic mechanisms, and may therefore constitute a promising and effective therapeutic strategy for treating human leukemia and MM. However, further studies are warranted for its reliable clinical translation.