Acute influence of cigarette smoke on secretion of pulmonary surfactant in rat alveolar type II cells in culture

H.R.W. Wirtz, M. Schmidt
1996 European Respiratory Journal  
It has been shown, that smoking results in a lower yield of surfactant associated phospholipids in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Indirect evidence suggests impaired secretion. In the present study, we investigated the influence of cigarette smoke on surfactant secretion in cultured rat alveolar type II cells. Smoke exposure was achieved by bubbling the smoke of four cigarettes through Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) which was adjusted to a reference absorption value of 1.36 at 320 nm.
more » ... Cells were preincubated with various dilutions of cigarette smoke-treated medium for 30 min, and were then exposed to this medium for 2 h. After this time, secretion of 3 H-choline-labelled phosphatidylcholine (PC) was measured as a marker of surfactant secretion. A 10 fold dilution of cigarette smoke-treated medium inhibited PC secretion stimulated by a combination of terbutaline, adenosine triphosphate and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate by over 50%, but did not alter basal secretion. Exposure to less concentrated cigarette smoke-treated medium resulted in less inhibition. Cellular injury was not observed with the concentrations of cigarette smoke-treated medium used in this study. The gas phase of cigarette smoke was not inhibitory at comparable concentrations. Longer exposure to cigarette smoke-treated medium resulted in increased inhibition of PC secretion. The cigarette smoke ingredients, nicotine and benzo[a]pyrene, failed to inhibit PC secretion. Secretion of type II cells exposed to cigarette smoke-treated medium at lower temperatures was not affected. Addition of antioxidants to medium and cells during the preincubation and secretion period did not alter cigarette smoke-treated medium-induced inhibition of stimulated PC secretion. These results demonstrate a direct inhibitory effect of cigarette smoke constituents on surfactant secretion in type II cells. Inhibition is mediated by compounds contained predominantly in the particulate phase of cigarette smoke. Inactivation of the inhibitory effect by lower temperatures suggests involvement of processes such as enzymatic bioactivation or active transport mechanisms.
doi:10.1183/09031936.96.09010024 pmid:8834329 fatcat:u6z7j4iqvjeclaiehsdhgj5pua