Bufalin prevents the migration and invasion of T24 bladder carcinoma cells through the inactivation of matrix metalloproteinases and modulation of tight junctions

2012 International Journal of Oncology  
Bufalin, a cardiotonic steroid extracted from toad venom, has generally been known to possess a range of biological activities; however, only a few studies have reported the antimetastatic activity of bufalin. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of bufalin on cell migration and invasion, two critical cellular processes that are often deregulated during metastasis, using the human bladder cancer cell line, T24. Within the concentration range that was not cytotoxic,
more » ... n markedly inhibited the cell motility and invasiveness of T24 cells. The inhibitory effects of bufalin on cell invasiveness were associated with the tightening of tight junctions (TJs), which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Bufalin treatment also repressed the levels of claudin proteins (claudin-2, -3 and -4) and the major components of TJs that play key roles in the control and selectivity of paracellular transport. Furthermore, the activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in T24 cells were dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with bufalin and this also correlated with a decrease in their mRNA and protein expression levels; however, the mRNA and protein levels of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2 were increased. In addition, these effects were related to the increased phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway. The inhibition of ERK (PD98059) significantly prevented the bufalin-induced suppression of T24 cell migration. These findings suggest that bufalin inhibits the migration and invasion of T24 cells by modulating the activity of TJs and MMPs, possibly in association with the activation of ERK.
doi:10.3892/ijo.2012.1683 pmid:23128598 fatcat:gj7jvzaiifd4fa7wc2h474okei