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AbstractHoney bees are valued pollinators of agricultural crops, and heavy losses reported by beekeepers have spurred efforts to identify causes. As social insects, threats to honey bees should be assessed by evaluating the effects of stress on the long-term health and productivity of the entire colony. Insect growth disruptors are a class of pesticides encountered by honey bees that target pathways involved in insect development, reproduction, and behavior, and they have been shown to affectdoi:10.1007/s13592-021-00845-x fatcat:kykdcksxo5aspbusmu5dxbv3tu