Molecular identification of ancient and modern mammalian magnesium transporters

Gary A. Quamme
2010 American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology  
Quamme GA. Molecular identification of ancient and modern mammalian magnesium transporters. A large number of mammalian Mg 2ϩ transporters have been hypothesized on the basis of physiological data, but few have been investigated at the molecular level. The recent identification of a number of novel proteins that mediate Mg 2ϩ transport has enhanced our understanding of how Mg 2ϩ is translocated across mammalian membranes. Some of these transporters have some similarity to those found in
more » ... cytes and yeast cells. Human Mrs2, a mitochondrial Mg 2ϩ channel, shares many of the properties of the bacterial CorA and yeast Alr1 proteins. The SLC41 family of mammalian Mg 2ϩ transporters has a similarity with some regions of the bacterial MgtE transporters. The mammalian ancient conserved domain protein (ACDP) Mg 2ϩ transporters are found in prokaryotes, suggesting an ancient origin. However, other newly identified mammalian transporters, including TRPM6/7, MagT, NIPA, MMgT, and HIP14 families, are not represented in prokaryotic genomes, suggesting more recent development. MagT, NIPA, MMgT, and HIP14 transporters were identified by differential gene expression using microarray analysis. These proteins, which are found in many different tissues and subcellular organelles, demonstrate a diversity of structural properties and biophysical functions. The mammalian Mg 2ϩ transporters have no obvious amino acid similarities, indicating that there are many ways to transport Mg 2ϩ across membranes. Most of these proteins transport a number of divalent cations across membranes. Only MagT1 and NIPA2 are selective for Mg 2ϩ . Many of the identified mammalian Mg 2ϩ transporters are associated with a number of congenital disorders encompassing a wide range of tissues, including intestine, kidney, brain, nervous system, and skin. It is anticipated that future research will identify other novel Mg 2ϩ transporters and reveal other diseases. differential regulation; heterologous expression
doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00124.2009 pmid:19940067 fatcat:ahr5msosbfh7ljtegpqe65bwtq