Pedestrian Injuries: Viscoelastic Properties of Human Knee Ligaments at High Loading Rates

J. A. W. van Dommelen, M. Minary Jolandan, B. J. Ivarsson, S. A. Millington, M. Raut, J. R. Kerrigan, J. R. Crandall, D. R. Diduch
2005 Traffic Injury Prevention  
email: Pedestrian injuries: viscoelastic properties of human knee ligaments at high loading rates J.A.W. van Dommelen et al. 2 ABSTRACT Objective Accidents involving pedestrians are very common, and often lead to severe injuries to the lower extremities. In a large portion of pedestrian-automobile collisions, knee ligament injuries are sustained. In this study, the viscoelastic properties of the four major human knee ligaments were investigated at loading rates
more » ... ative for pedestrian-automobile collisions. Methods Bone-ligament-bone specimens were tested in knee distraction loading. The collateral ligaments and the separate functional bundles of the cruciate ligaments were tested in the anatomical position corresponding to a fully extended knee. A series of step-and-hold tests and ramp tests at different rates were conducted in order to characterize the time-dependent behavior of the knee ligaments for deformation rates associated with the pedestrian impact loading environment. The quasi linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory was used to describe the structural response of the knee ligaments and averaged parameters for this model were determined. Results The QLV theory was found to be applicable for the time range that is relevant for pedestrianautomobile collisions. The structural behavior of the knee ligaments was found to be particularly rate-sensitive for high elongation rates, as occur during these collisions. The ligament stiffness was found to increase with age for both the collateral ligaments and with weight for the medial collateral ligament. Conclusions For the loading conditions that are relevant for pedestrian-automobile collisions, the use of the QLV model for the description of the mechanical behavior of knee ligaments is appropriate. The rate-sensitivity is particularly important for these extreme loading conditions. The relaxation behavior was found to be consistent between different ligament types and samples. Variations due to donor anthropometry were found predominantly for the instantaneous elastic behavior. Pedestrian injuries: viscoelastic properties of human knee ligaments at high loading rates J.A.W. van Dommelen et al. 3 KEYWORDS pedestrian injury; knee ligaments; viscoelastic properties; age dependence; weight dependence;
doi:10.1080/15389580590969436 pmid:16087469 fatcat:3qab4bewlvggbpjwap7vtx6qga