Increased risk of Pneumocystis carinii and community-acquired pneumonia with tobacco use in HIV disease

Maria Jose Miguez-Burbano, David Ashkin, Allan Rodriguez, Robert Duncan, Arthur Pitchenik, Noaris Quintero, Monica Flores, Gail Shor-Posner
2005 International Journal of Infectious Diseases  
Objectives: Tobacco smoking-related diseases continue to be of great health concern for the public, in general, and may be particularly deleterious for immunosuppressed HIV-positive individuals, who exhibit widespread tobacco use. Methods: A total of 521 HIV-infected subjects consecutively admitted to Jackson Memorial Hospital between 2001-2002 were enrolled in the study. Research data included a medical history, details of tobacco and illicit drug use and complete computerized hospital
more » ... ion. Blood was drawn to obtain T lymphocyte profiles and viral load levels. Statistical analysis methods included Pearson, Student's t-and Chi-square tests and SAS Proc CATMOD. Results: Tobacco use was prevalent, with 65% of the 521 HIV-positive hospitalized patients being current smokers. Overall, current tobacco users reported smoking an average of 15 AE 13 cigarettes per day for an average of 15 AE 14 years, with 40% smoking more than one pack per day. Pulmonary infections accounted for 49% of the total hospital admissions: 52% bacterial pneumonias, 24% Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), 12% non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases (NTM), 11% tuberculosis and 1% bronchitis. Many of the respiratory patients (46%) had been on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for over six months and 42% had received PCP and/or
doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2004.07.010 pmid:15916913 fatcat:tefgslx7rfhrfoaul6q2v3jkzm