Neuroimaging endophenotypes of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a discordant sibling pair study
Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by notable familial aggregation involving common variants of many genes, and its heritability leads to a high prevalence in the siblings of affected individuals compared with the general population. Endophenotypes are objective, heritable, quantitative traits that appear to reflect the genetic risk for polygenic disorders at more biologically tractable levels. Based on a sibling pair design, we aimed to find the neuroimaging endophenotypes of
... and investigate the role of inherent neurological disorders in the pathogenesis and deterioration of T2DM. Twenty-six pairs of diagnosed T2DM patients with unaffected siblings and 26 unrelated controls were included in this study. Both high-resolution structural MRI and three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (3D-pCASL) MRI data were acquired with a 3.0 T MRI system. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was performed on the structural T1W images, and cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps were obtained. All data were processed with the SPM8 package under the MATLAB 7.6 operation environment. The T2DM patients and their unaffected siblings shared significant atrophy in the right inferior/middle temporal gyrus, and left insula, in addition to elevated CBF in the right prefrontal lobe. Several regions with abnormal CBF in siblings, including the right inferior/middle temporal gyrus, left insula, left operculum, right supramarginal gyrus, right prefrontal lobe, and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, also presented significant atrophy in T2DM patients. The shared brain regions with grey matter (GM) loss and CBF increases may serve as neuroimaging endophenotypes of T2DM, and the regions with abnormal CBF in siblings indicate an increased risk for T2DM.