Thymopoiesis, Alterations in Dendritic cells and Tregs and Reduced T-Cell Activation in Successful Extracorporeal Photopheresis Treatment of GVHD
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a significant complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and negatively affects T-cell reconstitution. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) reduces aGVHD, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Our objective was to examine the impact of ECP on thymopoiesis in pediatric aGVHD and the mechanisms at a cellular and transcriptional level. Sixteen pediatric HSCT patients were recruited; 6 with ECP-treated aGVHD, 5 without
... GVHD and 5 with aGVHD treated with corticosteroids only. Thymopoiesis was evaluated by measuring naive T-cells, TRECs, IL-7 and T-cell receptor repertoire diversity. Regulatory T-cell (Treg) enumeration and function and dendritic cell (DC) enumeration and phenotype were analyzed using flow cytometry. T-cell transcriptome analysis was performed on ECP patients after treatment and responders pre and post-treatment. Four ECP-responders demonstrated thymic-dependent T-cell recovery, and superior median naïve T-cell numbers at 8 and 12 months post-HSCT compared to the aGVHD corticosteroid group. Increased Tregs and Treg suppressive function, reduced cDC/pDC and DC co-stimulatory marker expression in ECP responders suggest upregulated peripheral tolerance, findings not observed in partial responders. Responder post-ECP CD3+ T-cell transcriptional profile demonstrated 3333 downregulated and 364 upregulated genes, with significant downregulation of ERRα and GαS pathways, and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory and adhesion proteins. Thymic function improves with successful ECP treatment. ECP reduces T-cell activation and impacts peripheral tolerance via DCs and Tregs. Differences in thymic recovery, DC and Treg cellular patterns and the T-cell transcriptome were observed between ECP responders and partial responders and require further validation and investigation in additional patients.