Safe Learning Environment Perception Scale (SLEPS): A Validity and Reliability Study
International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education
The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate a measurement scale on students' perception of a psychologically safe learning environment in the Turkish context. Primarily, the scale items underwent two rounds of expert review. Then, a series of item elimination or revisions were performed to improve their relevance to the content domain and their comprehensibility for the target group according to the CVI and modified kappa statistics. The results yielded a strong content validity
... and clarity of the items. Then, the exploratory factor analysis and parallel analysis were performed based on the data from 556 secondary school students (grade 5-8), which suggested a three-factor solution. The KMO was 0.942 > 0.50 with significant Bartlett test values, x 2 (496) = 8295.592, p < 0.001 and the explained total variance was 50.622 %. Each item had a factor loading of > 0.58 with > 0.40 common correlations. To validate this structure, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted based on the data from a different group of students (N = 339). The goodness of fit indices, factor loadings, and the t statistics supported a good-fitting measurement model, x 2 (N = 339) = 925.29, df = 461, p < 0.001; x 2 /df = 2, NFI = 0.94, NNFI = 0.97, CFI = 0.97, SRMR = 0.069, RMSEA = 0.055. The convergent and discriminant validity were also supported. In general, the SLEPS has potential applicability both at the lower and upper secondary schools (public and private) and at the educational centers for the gifted.