Relationship between Vitamin B12 and Cobalt Metabolism in Domestic Ruminant: An Update

Jose-Ramiro González-Montaña, Francisco Escalera-Valente, Angel J. Alonso, Juan M. Lomillos, Roberto Robles, Marta E. Alonso
2020 Animals  
Cobalt, as a trace element, is essential for rumen microorganisms for the formation of vitamin B12. In the metabolism of mammals, vitamin B12 is an essential part of two enzymatic systems involved in multiple metabolic reactions, such as in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, some amino acids and DNA. Adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin are coenzymes of methylmalonyl coenzyme A (CoA) mutase and methionine synthetase and are essential for obtaining energy through ruminal metabolism. Signs
more » ... l metabolism. Signs of cobalt deficiency range from hyporexia, reduced growth and weight loss to liver steatosis, anemia, impaired immune function, impaired reproductive function and even death. Cobalt status in ruminant animals can be assessed by direct measurement of blood or tissue concentrations of cobalt or vitamin B12, as well as the level of methylmalonic acid, homocysteine or transcobalamin in blood; methylmalonic acid in urine; some variables hematological; food consumption or growth of animals. In general, it is assumed that the requirement for cobalt (Co) is expressed around 0.11 ppm (mg/kg) in the dry matter (DM) diet; current recommendations seem to advise increasing Co supplementation and placing it around 0.20 mg Co/kg DM. Although there is no unanimous criterion about milk production, fattening or reproductive rates in response to increased supplementation with Co, in some investigations, when the total Co of the diet was approximately 1 to 1.3 ppm (mg/kg), maximum responses were observed in the milk production.
doi:10.3390/ani10101855 pmid:33053716 fatcat:fdopulp4zzdgxeayz4krzyibpi