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The semantic gap between queries and documents is a longstanding problem in Information Retrieval (IR), and it poses a critical challenge for medical IR due to the large presence in the medical language of synonymous and polysemous words, along with context-specific expressions. Two main lines of work have emerged in the past years to tackle this issue: (i) the use of external knowledge resources to enhance query and document bag-of-words representations; and (ii) the use of semantic models,dblp:conf/fdia/Marchesin19 fatcat:5cj3rjszavd6pa3g6tklppenaq