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In the paper we introduce a new programming language construct, called concept, which is defined as a pair of two classes: one reference class and one object class. Instances of the reference class are passed-by-value and are intended to indirectly represent objects. Instances of the object class are passed-by-reference. Each concept has a parent concept specified by means of the concept inclusion relation. This approach where concepts are used instead of classes is referred to asdoi:10.5381/jot.2008.7.3.a2 fatcat:gnbjoqxitzhxbbzw5hyjosebfu