Electrocardiogram-Based Emotion Recognition Systems and Their Applications in Healthcare—A Review
Affective computing is a field of study that integrates human affects and emotions with artificial intelligence into systems or devices. A system or device with affective computing is beneficial for the mental health and wellbeing of individuals that are stressed, anguished, or depressed. Emotion recognition systems are an important technology that enables affective computing. Currently, there are a lot of ways to build an emotion recognition system using various techniques and algorithms. This
... review paper focuses on emotion recognition research that adopted electrocardiograms (ECGs) as a unimodal approach as well as part of a multimodal approach for emotion recognition systems. Critical observations of data collection, pre-processing, feature extraction, feature selection and dimensionality reduction, classification, and validation are conducted. This paper also highlights the architectures with accuracy of above 90%. The available ECG-inclusive affective databases are also reviewed, and a popularity analysis is presented. Additionally, the benefit of emotion recognition systems towards healthcare systems is also reviewed here. Based on the literature reviewed, a thorough discussion on the subject matter and future works is suggested and concluded. The findings presented here are beneficial for prospective researchers to look into the summary of previous works conducted in the field of ECG-based emotion recognition systems, and for identifying gaps in the area, as well as in developing and designing future applications of emotion recognition systems, especially in improving healthcare.