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We analyze an optical 3-port reflection grating by means of a scattering matrix formalism. Amplitude and phase relations between the 3 ports, i.e. the 3 orders of diffraction are derived. Such a grating can be used as an all-reflective, low-loss coupler to Fabry-Perot cavities. We derive the input output relations of a 3-port grating coupled cavity and find distinct properties not present in 2-port coupled cavities. The cavity relations further reveal that the 3-port coupler can be designeddoi:10.1364/ol.30.001183 pmid:15943303 fatcat:oodlwqrctfgp7lptjltsqr62sa