Prashant J. Nair, Dae-Hyun Kim, Moinuddin K. Qureshi
2013 SIGARCH Computer Architecture News  
DRAM scaling has been the prime driver for increasing the capacity of main memory system over the past three decades. Unfortunately, scaling DRAM to smaller technology nodes has become challenging due to the inherent difficulty in designing smaller geometries, coupled with the problems of device variation and leakage. Future DRAM devices are likely to experience significantly high error-rates. Techniques that can tolerate errors efficiently can enable DRAM to scale to smaller technology nodes.
more » ... technology nodes. However, existing techniques such as row/column sparing and ECC become prohibitive at high error-rates. To develop cost-effective solutions for tolerating high error-rates, this paper advocates a cross-layer approach. Rather than hiding the faulty cell information within the DRAM chips, we expose it to the architectural level. We propose ArchShield, an architectural framework that employs runtime testing to identify faulty DRAM cells. ArchShield tolerates these faults using two components, a Fault Map that keeps information about faulty words in a cache line, and Selective Word-Level Replication (SWLR) that replicates faulty words for error resilience. Both Fault Map and SWLR are integrated in reserved area in DRAM memory. Our evaluations with 8GB DRAM DIMM show that ArchShield can efficiently tolerate error-rates as higher as 10 −4 (100x higher than ECC alone), causes less than 2% performance degradation, and still maintains 1-bit error tolerance against soft errors. SECDED ECC−DIMM (ArchShield) Mitigation Not Needed Sparing or of Rows Columns OUR GOAL Figure 1: Fault mitigation technique depends on bit errorrate (BER). Row sparing works well at low error-rates and SECDED-based DIMMs can tolerate BER of approximately 10 −6 . We target a BER that is about 100x higher.
doi:10.1145/2508148.2485929 fatcat:qxchykvokvf37grfmyeixane2e